Past Seminars


September 30
Cindy Ewing (University of Missouri): “The Third World before Afro-Asia”
Comment: Ruodi Duan (Harvard)

October 21
The United Nations and International Order: 75 Years On

Jane Hong, Occidental College 
Jamie Martin, Georgetown University
Mira Siegelberg, University of Cambridge
Lydia Walker, University of London

November 11
Alvita Akiboh (University of Michigan): “Symbolic Decolonization: Material Culture and Performing the End of U.S. Empire”
Comment: Kristin Oberiano (Harvard)

December 2
Perin Gurel (University of Notre Dame): “The Politics of Beauty: Modernization Theory, Comparativism, and the Last Empress of Iran”
Comment: Catherine Boyle (Harvard)

February 17
Adam Clulow (Univerity of Texas, Austin) and Lauren Benton (Yale): “Suspended Sovereignty in Small Places”
Comment: Aden Knaap (Harvard)

March 24
Priya Satia (Stanford): "George Orwell and Empire"
Comment: Gili Kliger (Harvard)

April 7
Quito Swan (University of Massachusetts, Boston): "Rude Boy International: Sound Systems, Dancehall and Diasporas"
Comment: Holger Droessler (Worcester Polytechnic Institute)

April 28
Marino Auffant (Harvard): "Globalizing Oil, Unleashing Capital: An International History of the 1970s Energy Crisis"
Comment: Arbella Bet-Shlimon (University of Washington)


Summer 2020 HIGHS Special Zoom Event

Wednesday, June 17, 12:00 – 1:30 pm ET



"Covid-19, the WHO, and International Society"



Erez Manela (History, Harvard University)


See the video recording of the panel here



September 25
Julia Irwin (University of South Florida): “Catastrophic Diplomacy: A History of U.S. Response to Natural Disaster”

October 16
Adom Getachew (University of Chicago/Safra Center for Ethics): "The Plantation’s Colonial Modernity in Comparative Perspective”

November 6
Megan Black (London School of Economics): “Undermining Rights: Transnational Environmental Justice and Indigenous Activism across Settler States”

December 4
Elizabeth Ingleson (Southern Methodist University): “Making Made In China: Race, Labor, and Politics in U.S.-China Trade 1971-1980"

February 12
Keisha N. Blain (University of Pittsburgh/Hutchins Center): "'East Unites with West': African American Women’s Visions of Japan in the Early Twentieth Century"

March 11
Michele Louro (Salem State University): "The Red Scare Comes India: The Meerut Trial and its Aftermath, 1929-1934" 

April 1
Christopher Dietrich (Fordham University): "The Continuing Education of Ralph Bunche in the 1930s" 

April 29
Ruodi Duan (Harvard University): "Chinese Visions of African American History, Politics, and Culture, 1960-1964" 



September 26
Daniel Bessner, University of Washington & Fredrik Logevall, HKS and History
"Deprovincializing the United States: The History of the U.S. in the World after the International and Transnational Turns"
Comment: Erez Manela, Harvard University

October 17
Joseph Fronczak, Princeton University (Warren Center Faculty Fellow)
“Gangster for Capitalism: Smedley Butler Abroad in the Age of Empire”
Comment: Juliet Nebolon, Harvard University

October 31 
Ken Osgood, Colorado School of Mines (Warren Center Faculty Fellow)
“Intelligence and Propaganda in U.S. Cold War Domestic Politics”
Comment: Daniel Chardell, Harvard University

November 14
Saje Mathieu, University of Minnesota (Warren Center Faculty Fellow)
“1919: Race, Riot, and Revolution”
Comment: Tejasvi Nagaraja, Harvard University

November 28
Rebecca Herman, University of California, Berkeley
“The Global Politics of Anti-Racism: A View from the Canal Zone, 1940-1955”
Comment: Kristin Oberiano, Harvard University

January 30
Gretchen Heefner, Northeastern University (Warren Center Faculty Fellow)
“From the Red Desert to the Red Planet”
Comment: Angel Rodriguez, Harvard University

February 6
Steffen Rimner, University of Utrecht
“Opium’s Long Shadow: From Asian Revolt to Global Drug Control ”

February 13
Kevin Kim, University of Washington Bothell (Warren Center Faculty Fellow)
“'Never Again Enter Upon Such Crusades': Herbert C. Hoover and the Meaning of Conservatism”
Comment: David Allen, Columbia University

February 27
Jessica Wang, University of British Columbia (Warren Center Faculty Fellow)
“The Mediterranean Fruit Fly in the Global Arena: Animals, Governance, and American Globalism in Early Twentieth-Century Hawai'i”
Comment: Nina Halty, Harvard University

March 13 
Victor McFarland, University of Missouri (Warren Center Faculty Fellow)
“Machines in Motion: The United States, Saudi Arabia, and Oil, 1967-73”
Comment: Marino Auffant, Harvard University

March 27 
"A Century Later: Rethinking 1919"
Speakers: Saje Mathieu, Michael Neiberg, Leonard Smith

April 10
Molly Geidel, University of Manchester (Warren Center Faculty Fellow)
“Seeing Like a Liberal Empire”
Comment: Ruodi Duan, Harvard University



September 20
Mary Dudziak, Asa Griggs Candler Professor of Law, Emory Law School
"Death and the War Power: A History" (co-sponsored with the Warren Center for Studies in American History)

October 4
Trygve Throntveit, Dean's Fellow for Civic Studies, University of Minnesota College of Education and Human Development
"Power without Victory: Woodrow Wilson and the American Internationalist Experiment" (co-sponsored with the Colloquium for Intellectual History) 

October 18 (*Location: CGIS South, S050*)
William Taubman, Bertrand Snell Professor of Political Science Emeritus, Amherst College
"Gorbachev: His Life and Times" (co-sponsored with the Davis Center for Russian Studies)

November 1
Jessica Gienow-Hecht, Professor of History, Free University Berlin
"Gender, Humanitarian Intervention and the War of 1898" (co-sponsored with the Warren Center for Studies in American History)

November 29
David Engerman, Ottilie Springer Professor of History, Brandeis University
"The Price of Aid: The Economic Cold War in India"

February 7
Heidi Tworek, Assistant Professor in International History, University of British Columbia"Communicable Disease: The League of Nations and the Creation of World Epidemiological Intelligence" (Co-sponsored with the Center for History and Economics)

March 28
Glenda Sluga, Professor of International History, University of Sydney
"Women, Men and the Origins of International Society, 1812-1822" (co-sponsored with the Center for History and Economics)

April 11
Sulmaan Khan, Assistant Professor of International History and Chinese Foreign Relations, Tufts University
"Chinese Grand Strategy: The Jiang Zemin-Hu Jintao Era"

April 30 (4:15-6:00pm, Robinson Lower Library)
Fred Cooper, Professor of History, New York University
"Post-imperial Possibilities: The Idea of Eurafrica in France and French Africa, 1945-1960" (co-sponsored with the Center for European Studies "New Directions in European History" Seminar)



September 21
Lisa Ford, University of New South Wales
"Keeping the Peace in the Shadow of War: The British Empire and Order circa 1763"

October 19
Brian DeLay, University of California, Berkeley
"Dambreaking: Guns, Capitalism, and the Independence of the Americas" 

November 16
Vanessa Ogle, University of Pennsylvania
"Archipelago capitalism: tax havens, offshore finance, and special economic zones, 1920s-1980s"

*Monday*, November 21
Salim Yaqub, University of California, Santa Barbara
"Oil-Gotten Gains: Petrodollars, Abscam, and Arab American Activism, 1973-1981"

February 1
Paul Kennedy, Yale University
"Braudel, Profound History, and the Battle of the Atlantic in 1943"

February 15
Cemil Aydin, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
"The Idea of the Muslim World: A Global History"

*Thursday*, March 2
Or Rosenboim, University of Cambridge
"The Chicago World Constitution (1948) and the Quest for Post-war Order"

March 22
Adam Ewing, Virginia Commonwealth University
"Promised Land: A People's History of the Global Pan-African Movement"

April 5
Anna Su, University of Toronto
"The Rise and Fall of Universal Civil Jurisdiction"



September 23
Philip J. Stern, Duke University
"The Nomos of the Island: Law and Geography in the Anglo-Portuguese 'Transfer' of Bombay"

September 30
Michael Goebel, Free University, Berlin
"Anti-Imperial Metropolis: Interwar Paris and the Seeds of Third World Nationalism" 

October 21
Jennifer Pitts, University of Chicago
"Boundaries of the International: A Contribution to the Critical History of International Law"

November 18
Arnulf Becker Lorca, Brown University
"Critical Rather than Realist or Idealist Histories; and Global Rather than International History: Beyond Mestizo International Law"

February 10
Elizabeth Borgwardt, Washington University in St. Louis
"The Nuremberg Idea: Crimes against Humanity in History, Law, & Politics"

March 2
Daniel Immerwahr, Northwestern
"How to Hide an Empire: Geography and Power in the Greater United States"

April 6
Timothy Nunan, Harvard Academy
"Persian Visions of Nationalism and Inter-Nationalism in a World at War"

May 4
David Engerman, Brandeis University
"Development Politics and the Cold War"






September 18
Panel: "The Collapse of Communism in Europe: New Perspectives" (25th anniversary of 1989) Speakers: Serhii Plokhii and Mary E. Sarotte, Respondents: Charles Maier and Terry Martin

October 2
** 4:15 PM, The Belfer Case Study Room, CGIS-020, 1730 Cambridge Street **
Sunil S. Amrith, Birkbeck, University of London
"Crossing the Bay of Bengal: The Furies of Nature and the Fortunes of Migrants"
** History and Economics Seminar event co-sponsored by HIGHS **

October 16
Davide Rodogno, The Graduate Institute, Geneva
"Beyond relief in the Near East: the Near East Relief humanitarian practices and visions during the 1920s"
Comment: Eva Bitran, Harvard University

November 13
Jennifer Burns, Stanford University
"Milton Friedman: The Economist as Historian"
** co-sponsored with the Center on History and Economics

February 12
Brad Simpson, University of Connecticut
"Self-determination, economic sovereignty and international history"
Comment: Barnaby Crowcroft, Harvard University

March 5 
David Engerman, Brandeis 
"Planning for Prosperity: The Economic Cold War in India"
Comment: Lydia Walker, Harvard University

March 26
Stella Ghervas, Harvard & Maison des Sciences de l'Homme d'Aquitaine
"Balance of Power vs. Perpetual Peace: Evolution of the Paradigms of European Order from Utrecht to Vienna (1713-1815)"
Comment: Marco Basile, Harvard University

April 9
Asher Orkaby, Ph.D. Candidate, Harvard University
"The International History of the Yemeni Civil War (1962-70)"
Comment: Timothy Nunan, Harvard Academy for International and Area Studies

Conference: "The Power of Peace: New Perspectives on the Congress of Vienna (1814-1815)"
Friday, April 11, 2:00pm - 6:00pm, Lower Level Conference Room, Busch Hall 
Co-sponsored by HIGHS and the Center for European Studies. For full details see here.



September 19
Niall Ferguson, Laurence A. Tisch Professor of History, Harvard University
"Institutions and Development: An International Historical Approach"
James Robinson, David Florence Professor of Government, Harvard University
Tamara Kay, Associate Professor of Sociology, Harvard University

October 10
Chen Jian, Michael J. Zak Chair of History for US China Relations, Cornell University
"China, the Third World, and the Global Cold War"
Comment: Steffen Rimner, Ph.D. Candidate, Harvard University

November 28
Jo Guldi, Assistant Professor of History, Brown University
"The Long Land War: A Global History of Land Reform, c. 1860-Present"
Comment: Kirsten Weld, Assistant Professor of History, Harvard University

February 13
Vanessa Ogle, Assistant Professor of History, University of Pennsylvania
"The Many Worlds That Unifying Time Created, 1880-1930"
Comment: Heidi Tworek, Harvard University

March 6 (Room change: Robinson Hall, Lower Library)
Daniel Sargent, Assistant Professor of History, University of California, Berkeley
"Managing Interdependence: The Experience of the United States in the mid-1970s"
Comment: Hassan Malik, Harvard University

April 3
Jenny Andersson, CNRS Fellow and Researcher, Sciences Po
"Forging the American future: Forecasting from RAND to the Commission for the Year 2000"
Comment: Lydia Walker, Harvard University

April 17 (Robinson Hall Lower Library)
**Special Event on Digital History/Big Data, co-sponsored with the History Department**
Matthew Connelly, Professor of History, Columbia University
"Decoding Official Secrecy: Computational Analysis of Hundreds of Thousands of Declassified Documents"

April 24
Mira Siegelberg, Ph.D. Candidate, Harvard University
"Is Statelessness Actually Evil? Codifying Statelessness at the United Nations and Beyond, 1954-1964"
Comment: Samuel Moyn, Columbia University



September 14
Charles Maier, Harvard University
"Once within Borders: A History of Territoriality since 1500"
Comment: Mira Siegelberg, Harvard University

October 5
Julian Go, Boston University
"Anti-Colonialism in the U.S. Empire, 1899-1935"
Comment: Andrew Baker, Harvard University

October 26
Ian Morris, Stanford University
"War: What is it Good For?"
Comment: Andrew Coe, Harvard University

November 16
Rachel St John, Harvard University
"The Imagined America of William McKendree Gwin: Individual Ambition and the Uneven Path of American Expansion"
Comment: Shaun Nichols, Harvard University

February 15
Tanisha Fazal, Columbia University
"Declaring War and Peace"
Comment: Danny Orbach, Harvard University

March 7
Faculty roundtable: "Is All History Global?" 
Participants: Joyce Chaplin, Michael McCormick, Charles Maier, Erez Manela. Chair: David Armitage 

March 28
Frank Costigliola, University of Connecticut
"The Emotions of George Kennan"
Comment: Eva Bitran

April 20
Colin Kidd, Queen's University, Belfast
"Race, Difference and the Origins of British Anthropology"
* Co-sponsored with the Center for History and Economics



September 15
Andrew Preston, University of Cambridge 
"Religion and Morality in Franklin Roosevelt's Diplomatic Thought"
Monica Toft, Harvard Kennedy School
Leigh Schmidt, Harvard Divinity School 

October 6
Jessica Gienow-Hecht , University of Köln
"How to Sell the State: Nation Branding, Civil Society and Cultural Diplomacy since 1850"
Comment: Ann Wilson (Harvard University)

October 27
Fredrik Logevall, Cornell University
International history of the Franco-Vietminh War
Comment: Eva Bitran (Harvard University)

November 17
Daniel Cohen, Rice University
"European Refugees and "Population Redistribution" in the Early Cold War Period"
Comment: Elisa Minoff (Harvard University)

February 16
Mary Elise Sarotte, University of Southern California
"Transatlantic Architectures of Order: The United States and the Shaping of Post-Cold War Europe"
Comment: Philip Fileri (Harvard University)

March 9
Penny von Eschen, University of Michigan
"'God I Miss the Cold War': Emergent Nostalgias and New Enemies in the Former West and East"
Comment: Uta Poiger (University of Washington)

March 30
Jane Hong, Harvard University
"Ending Asian Exclusion: Independence, Immigration, & the India League of America during World War II"
Comment: Sugata Bose (Harvard University)

April 20
Susan Pedersen, Columbia University 
"A New History of the Mandates System of the League of Nations"
Comment: Erez Manela (Harvard University)



September 24 (Thursday)
Roundtable on the legacy of Ernest R. May 
Center for European Studies, Lower Level Conference Room
Roundtable participants: 
Graham Allison (Harvard Kennedy School)
Akira Iriye (Harvard History)
Charles Maier (Harvard History)
Hue-Tam Ho Tai (Harvard History)
Philip Zelikow (University of Virginia)

October 14
Jeremi Suri (University of Wisconsin, Madison)
“A Nation-Building People: American Efforts at International Control without Empire, and the Consequences”
Comment: Vernie Oliveiro (Harvard University)

November 4
Alison Bashford (University of Sydney)
“Food, Soil, People: Geopolitics and the World Population in the Mid-Twentieth Century”
Comment: Paul Cruickshank (Harvard University)

December 2
* Special venue: CGIS S-020 (Belfer Case Study Room) *
Linda Colley (Princeton University)
“Gendering the Globe: The Political and Imperial Thought of Philip Francis"
Comment: Penny Sinanoglu (Harvard University)

February 3
Alison Frank (Harvard University) 
"The Fool's Duty: Cocaine Smuggling in the Austrian Empire and India, 1908-1914"
Comment: Steffen Rimner (Harvard University)

February 24
Peter Holquist (University of Pennsylvania)
"Origins of 'crimes against humanity'"
Comment: Mira Siegelberg (Harvard University)

March 22 (*Monday*)
Jeffrey Wasserstrom (University of California, Irvine)
"The Boxer Rebellion in Global Perspective"
Comment: Konrad Lawson (Harvard University)

April 21
Moshik Temkin (Harvard Kennedy School)
"Malcolm X in France: Internationalism and the Limits of Political Tolerance"
Comment: Adam Ewing (Harvard University)



September 24
"The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948-2008: A 60th Anniversary Roundtable"
Gary J. Bass (Associate Professor of Politics, Princeton)
Caroline Elkins (Hugo K. Foster Associate Professor of African Studies, Harvard)
Noah Feldman (Bemis Professor of International Law, Harvard Law School)
Ernest May (Charles Warren Professor of American History, Harvard) 

October 22
"Continental Empires: The United States and Russia"
Jane Burbank (Professor of History, New York University) and
Fred Cooper (Professor of History, New York University)

November 19
“A World Transformed: A Global History of the Twentieth Century”
William C. Kirby, Edith and Benjamin Geisinger Professor of History, Harvard University, and Charles S. Maier, Leverett Saltonstall Professor of History, Harvard University, discuss a chapter from their collaborative textbook.

December 3
“Borders of Citizenship: Italian Repatriation after World War II”
Pamela Ballinger (Associate Professor of Anthropology, Bowdoin College)

February 11
William O'Reilly, Lecturer in Early Modern History, University of Cambridge
"Resurrecting Universal Empire: Spain, Europe and the Americas, 1680-1780"

March 11
Erez Manela, Dunwalke Associate Professor of American History, Harvard University
“A Pox on Your Narrative: Writing Disease into Cold War History”

April 8
Victoria de Grazia, Professor of History, Columbia University
“The Soft Power Complex: A Short Critical History”

April 29
Nico Slate, Graduate Student in History, Harvard University
"Non-Violence and the Nation: Gandhian Satyagraha and Racial Equality in the United States during the Second World War"



October 3
"The Abolition of Slavery: Panel Discussion"
Emmanuel Akyeampong, Professor of History, Harvard University
Vincent Brown, Dunwalke Associate Professor of American History, Harvard University
Maya Jasanoff, Associate professor of History, Harvard University
Kenneth Maxwell, Visiting Professor of History and Director, Brazilian Studies Program, Harvard University

October 24
John R. McNeill, Professor of History and Cinco Hermanos Chair of Environmental and International Affairs, Georgetown University
“The Cold War and the Biosphere”

November 14
Eric Rauchway, Professor of History, University of California-Davis
“The Nineteenth-Century U.S. as a Developmental State”

December 5
Adam McKeown, Associate Professor of History, Columbia University
"Global Migration and the Politics of Newness"

February 20
David Ekbladh, Tufts University
“Liberalism's Spine: 'Modernization' to Meet the Challenge of Totalitarianism, 1933-1944”

March 12
David C. Engerman, Brandeis University
“Knowing the Cold War Enemy”

April 2
Brendan Simms, University of Cambridge
“The Primacy of European Politics in Eighteenth-century Britain”

April 30
Vernie Oliveiro, Harvard University
“Restraining the Leviathans: The United States and the Global Governance of Multinational Corporations in the 1970s”



September 27
Mark Mazower (Columbia University)
"The Nazi New Order in World History"

October 18
Adriane Lentz-Smith (UNC-Chapel Hill)
"Black Manhood & Black Internationalism in the Jazz Age"

November 15
Daniel Sargent (Harvard University)
"Crucible of Globalism: Human Rights, Transnational Politics, and the Transformation of American Foreign Policy, 1968-1980"

December 13
Mary Lewis (Harvard University)
"Ending Extraterritoriality? European Consular Justice and the French Rule of Law in Tunisia, 1880s-1920s"

February 14
Duncan Bell (University of Cambridge)
"Virtue and Empire: Nineteenth-Century Liberal and Republican Visions of Imperialism" 

March 7
Mark Elliott (Harvard University)
"The Manchus and the Idea of Modern China"

April 4
David Igler (UC-Irvine)
"'Ocean of Business': The Geography of Commerce in the Eastern Pacific Basin, 1770s-1840s"

May 2
Elizabeth Borgwardt (Washington University of St. Louis)
"Re-examining Nuremberg as a New Deal Institution: Politics, Culture, and the Limits of Law in Generating Human Rights Norms"
Please Note Different Location and Time: Lower Library, Robinson Hall, 1:00-3:00 p.m.



October 5
Emma Rothschild (King's College, Cambridge and Harvard University)
"Anxiety and Colonial Administration in Eighteenth-Century France"

October 26
KC Johnson (Brooklyn College)
"Congress and the Cold War, 1947-1987"
* Co-sponsored by the Charles Warren Center for Studies in American History

November 16
C.A. Bayly (University of Cambridge)
"European Thought and the Wider World in the Nineteenth Century: A Provisional Agenda"

December 14
Evan Dawley (Harvard University)
"Constructing Identities in a Colonial and Post-Colonial Taiwanese City, 1895-1948"

February 8 (CGIS)
Niall Ferguson (Harvard University)
"The War of the World: Rethinking Global Conflict in the Twentieth Century"

March 8 (CGIS)
Michael Auslin (Yale University)
"Cultural Exchange and the Cosmopolitan Impulse: Mapping the U.S.-Japan Relationship"

April 12 (BSR)
Lauren Benton (New York University)
"Landlocked: The Legal Puzzles of Quasi-Sovereign Colonial Enclaves"

Thursday, April 20 (BSR), 12:00-2:00
Andrew Preston (University of Victoria/Yale University)
"The War Council: McGeorge Bundy, the NSC, and Vietnam"
* Co-Sponsored by the Charles Warren Center's Kohn Family Fund in U.S. Military and Security History



October 13 (LL)
Panel Discussion: The Great Depression as Global History
Charles Maier, Sugata Bose, John Coatsworth, and Roger Owen (Harvard University)
Chair: Akira Iriye (Harvard University)

Tuesday, November 2 (BSR)
Matthew Connelly (Columbia University)
"Unnatural History: Population Control and the Struggle to Remake Humanity"

November 17 (LL)
David Blackbourn (Harvard University)
"What Would a "Transnational" History of Imperial Germany Look Like?"

December 15 (LL)
Aviel Roshwald (Georgetown University)
"The Nation in History and the Curved Arrow of Time"

February 16 (LL)
Charles Maier (Harvard University)
"Among Empires: American Ascendancy and Its Predecessors"

March 16 (LL)
Paul Kramer (Johns Hopkins University)
"The Blood of Government: Race and Empire Between the United States and the Philippines"

April 12 (BSR)
Eric Tagliacozzo (Cornell University)
"Remembering Devotion: Oral History and the Pilgrimmage to Mecca from Southeast Asia"

April 20 (LL)
Julian Zelizer (Boston University)
"The Death of Detente: President Gerald Ford and the Rise of a Neo-Conservative National Security Agenda"
* Co-sponsored by the Charles Warren Center for Studies in American History



October 1 (LL)
"100 Years to the Russo-Japanese War - A Colloquium"
Sugata Bose (Harvard University)
Akira Iriye (Harvard University)
John LeDonne (Harvard University)

October 29 (LL)
Charles S. Maier (Harvard University)
"An American Empire? Implication for Democracy, Order, and Disorder in World Politics"

November 16 (BSR)
Cemil Aydin (Ohio State University)
"The Role of Anti-Western Ideas in International History: The Cases of Pan-Islamism and Pan-Asianism"

February 11 (LL)
Ron Robin (Haifa University, Israel)
"The Outsider as Marginal Scholar: Reflections on the Past, the Foreign, and Comparative Studies in American History"

March 10 (LL)
Jonathan Conant (Harvard University )
"New Rome, New Romans: The Re-Imposition of Imperial Rule in Late Antique North Africa, A.D. 533-698"

March 24 (BSR)
Matthias Zachmann (Heidelberg University)
"Conflict in a Nutshell: Japanese and International Reactions to the Tripartite Intervention (1895)"

April 6 (Tuesday, BSR)
Christopher Goscha (University of Lyon II, France)
"The Maritime Nature of the Wars for Vietnam, 1945-1975"

April 14 (LL)
Olivier Pétré-Grenouilleau (University of Bretagne-Sud and the University Institute of France)
"Rethinking European colonial expansion: Some pointers"

May 5 (LL)
Lisa McGirr (Harvard University) "Transnational Solidarities: The Sacco and Vanzetti Case in Global Perspective"